Top Christmas or Hanukkah gift recommendations for any believer | Holiday special 6

We have decided to put a gift list recommendation for any believer, which is known to be a great tool. We do hope you find these useful… NOTICE: There are no affiliate links or store links on this page. You will find links to other parts of our site.

For the avid Bible scholar

1611 King James Bible

We have a review of this.

The Geneva Bible

This one is a good to have kind of Bible, even though we know many Bible scholars have many Bibles – what’s another one? But seriously, reading at least one pre-1611 Bible would be nice and refreshing to see.

For any believer

Giant or Large print Genuine Leather-bound Bible with Words of Christ in Red

Now, the wide margin, notes editions, and pulpit reference Bibles are nice (including the Instant Reference Bible); however, if you only want a regular Bible, feel free.

Accessories

Micron pens: These are very good and precise to underline in the Bible certain Scriptures.

Bible highlighters: These help very well, since normal highlighters can bleed through the pages of thin paper Bibles (which are almost universal).

Bible covers: These are very useful for people who want to take their Bible everywhere with them and want it to be protected.

Mini-dictionary: There are many mini Bible dictionaries that define words, which are usually more expansive than many glossaries included in the back of the Bible.

Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance: This is for more avid Bible scholars, but many people can learn how to use them. They are by far more expansive than concordances in the back of Bibles. They also include Greek and Hebrew word references, which helps some scholars.

Bible indexing tabs: If your Bible is not already indexed or they are either wearing off or not good enough, then definitely check out indexing tabs.

Bookmarks and ribbon markers: These are great for marking your place in a Bible or other reference, and the ones with Bible verses are especially nice!

Arts and crafts: This is especially good for family activities and for children.

Review & Guide for the 1611 King James Version

Opinion post by: Dr Jay

Welcome to my first review. I am grateful to Rose/Hendrickson Publishers for all of their awesome resources to help this pastor for the Lord. I will be reviewing a 1611 King James Version Bible that I do hope helps you understand how to use one of these. I think this is cool, because even I have to learn how to use this, especially during my Bible studies.

Many Bible sellers do sell the 1611 facsimile version of the King James Bible, and I will tell you this has a type of artistry you don’t typically see in other Bibles. I am not being paid for this review, but rather am doing this to help others. Therefore, I will not state who the publisher is or where this came from. As I said, you can find it in diverse Bible stores online.

Beginning of review

When first opening this Bible, it is magnificent in artistry on the title page. The first very noticeable difference, even though some versions do have a publisher introduction, this has a translator’s introduction to the reader. Most of the text is written well on the page along with notes in the left and right margins.

This introduction allows you to know how the Holy Ghost ministered to the translators and helped them complete this Bible version. What was running through the minds of the translators though was significant and is best to read yourself.

Next in my copy I see a Bible reading plan along with prayer plan. This is made for every month of the year and a supplemental almanac is included. After that was a few different guides on the Bible, such as lessons proper for Holy days, the order of the Psalms, proper Psalms on certain days.

Structure of Bible books

Old Testament canon

Apocrypha (Christian circles do not usually read this anymore due to it being unrecognized as Holy Scripture)

New Testament canon

You will notice language differences

Use this guide to figure out how to distinguish between language use between US English and Old English.

Conclusion of this review

I do hope this was insightful. I linked to the different pages on a website that I trust to provide good information. I do hope it was useful and would be information to you, especially if you want to try the 1611 KJV before buying one copy of your own. The facsimile copies range from about $10-20 USD – $1,000.

How did we get the Bible?

We know that the Bible holds all the wisdom that we need for our life and it is the most awesome and profound reference for our lives and for other’s lives. It holds all the beautiful revelations from God, and the timeless purposes God has had in His Redemptive Plan for Creation!

We illustrate some truths about how we got the Bible in the first place, and how it became as this most important reference.

  • The Bible is inspired by God (2 Timothy 3:16-17; 2 Peter 1:20-21).
  • The Bible is made up of 66 books, it is an anthology or a library as some have called it. Many of the books were written over 1600 years ago. The time range seems to be about 1500 BC to 100 AD. We see more than 40 kings, prophets, leaders, and followers of Jesus Christ. The Old Testament has 39, while the New Testament has 27 books. The OT books were written around 1500-400 BC it seems, while the NT books were written about 45-100 AD.
  • The Old Testament was written mainly in Hebrew and included some Aramaic. The New Testament was written in Greek. Now, what we have in our English Bible is a translation.
  • The Books of the Bible were collected and arranged, and were found to be inspired by a sacred authority of rabbis and church leaders using careful guidelines as they were led by the Lord.
  • Before the printing press, the Bible was copied by hand very accurately. Special scribes developed intricate methods of counting the words and letters to ensure no errors were made.
  • The Bible was the first book to ever be printed on the printing press with moveable type (which was the Latin Bible on the Gutenberg Press in 1455).
  • There is much evidence that the Bible we have is completely true to their original Greek manuscripts.
  • The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls confirmed the reliability of the Old Testament copies. Although there were spelling variations, there were no doctrinal differences.
  • As the Bible was carried to other countries, it was translated in their common language.
  • Dates for how many languages the Bible was respectively translated into: 200 AD = 7 languages; 500 AD = 13 languages; 900 AD = 17 languages; 1400 = 28 languages; 1800 = 57 languages; 1900 = 537 languages; 1980 = 1100 languages; and 2014 = 2883 languages.

Bible materials

The Old Testament was written on leather, clay, and stone. The New Testament was written on papyrus. The Bible was copied onto papyrus as it became customary. Eventually, the Bible was printed by the printing press after 1455. Now, the Bible is printed on paper in many languages and digital formats, and it is fully beautiful.

The Timelines of the Bible’s creation

  • Starting in 2000 BC – Old Testament events are written in Hebrew and portions in Aramaic. In Exodus, God told Moses to write in a book, and other writers, leaders, kings, and prophets wrote parts of the Old Testament. They did so as God inspired them. All of them are called the Hebrew Scriptures or the Old Testament.

  • 500 BC – Ezra collected and arranged some of the Books of the Hebrew Bible, which constructed the Old Testament, at about 450 BC.

  • The Septuagint is the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible and was translated in 250-100 BC by Jewish scholars in Alexandria, Egypt.

  • 200 BC – The books are arranged by subject: history, poetry, prophecy, etc. It also includes the apocrypha, which we don’t have in our typical Bible these days.

  • 1 AD – Time of Jesus – Jesus often quoted the Old Testament Scriptures, for He did not come to destroy the Scripture. Everything must be fulfilled that is written about Jesus from the Law of Moses. He opened their minds so they could understand the Scriptures (Luke 24:44-45).

  • 100 AD – Followers of Jesus from 45-100 AD wrote many different letters and books with records about Jesus and His Ministry.

  • 200 AD – Old Testament apocrypha ruled out as trusted Scripture.

  • 200-300 AD – The earliest translations were written in Latin, Coptic (from Egypt), and Syriac.

  • Church Fathers accepted the writings of the Gospels and Paul’s letters as canonical. Origen listed 21 approved New Testament books, and Eusebius listed 22 accepted books.

  • 300 AD – The New Testament books were collected and circulated through the Mediterranean around the time of Constantine – the Roman emperor who legalized Christianity in 313. The 27 books they took account of were included as canonical by the Synod of Carthage in 397.

  • Jerome started translating the Scriptures into Latin in 382 and finished it about 23 years after. This translation known as the Latin Vulgate remained the basic Bible for many centuries.

  • 500 AD – The Masoretes were Jewish Scribes entrusted with making copies of the Hebrew Scriptures. They developed a good system of counting the words to ensure it was fully accurate of a copy.

  • 600 AD – Christianity reached Britain before 300; however, Anglo-Saxon pagans drove Christian Britons into Wales. Augustine of Canterbury began evangelization. There were a few different scholars who translated parts of the Bible such as Caedmon, Aldhelm, Bede, Alfred the Great, Aldred, and Aelfric.

  • 1300 AD – The first English Bible is translated to Latin in 1382, and was called the Wycliffe Bible in honor of the priest John Wycliffe. The Bible is eventually banned and burned.

  • 1455 – The first printing press was invented in Germany by Johann Gutenberg, and the Gutenberg Bible is the first book ever printed by a printing press.

  • 1500 – Martin Luther translated the New Testament into German in about 1522. Erasmus published a Greek edition of the more accurate Latin translation of the New Testament in 1516. This would form the basis for the Textus Receptus, which was used by Martin Luther, William Tyndale, and other King James translators.

  • The Coverdale Bible was translated by Miles Coverdale and dedicated to Anne Boleyn. The Matthew’s Bible was translated by John Rogers under the pen name “Thomas Matthew”. The Great Bible was placed in every church by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer.

  • 1555 – Queen Mary banned protestant translations of the English Bible. Soon, exiles from England fled to Geneva to produce the Geneva Bible in 1560. This is the Bible of Shakespeare and carried to America by the Pilgrims in 1620. The 1640 edition omitted the apocrypha.

  • Soon, the Bishop’s Bible, which began under the lead of Queen Elizabeth in 1568, was published. After that, the Douay-Rheims Bible was translated into English from the Latin Vulgate by Gregory Martin. It became the standard translation for the Catholic Church.

  • 1600 – King James I of England commissioned 54 scholars to translate into a new Bible, which we call the King James Version or Authorized Version. It is the most popular Bible translation for over 300 years, almost 400 years. The first version was officially published in 1611.

  • 1800 – Older manuscripts have been discovered between 1629-1947, which show the accuracy of Bible translations.

  • Codex Alexandrinus and Codex Sinaiticus were copies of the New Testament that were discovered from about 400 AD.

  • The Revised Version is released in 1885 after scholars in England found manuscripts to guide them. The Codex Vaticanus was found to be one of the earliest copies of the New Testament that was found in 1889.

  • 1900 – The Dead Sea Scrolls were found in a cave in 1947 that contained portions of the Old Testament that were made between 100 BC and 100 AD. A Scroll of Isaiah was found as part of the Dead Sea Scrolls and is a near perfect reliable copy. A Ugaritic Grammar was published in the 1960s.

  • LIST OF MODERN TRANSLATIONS OF THE BIBLE

  • 1885 – The English Revised Version

  • 1901 – American Standard Version

  • 1926 – Moffatt Bible

  • 1931 – Smith-Goodspeed, An American Translation

  • 1952 – The Revised Standard Version

  • 1958 – JB Phillip’s New Testament in Modern English

  • 1965 – The Amplified Bible

  • 1966 – Jerusalem Bible

  • 1970 – New English Bible

  • 1970 – New American Bible

  • 1971 – New American Standard Bible

  • 1971 – The Living Bible

  • 1976 – The Good News Bible (Today’s English Version)

  • 1978 – New International Version

  • 1982 – New King James Version

  • 1987 – New Century Version

  • 1989 – Jewish New Testament

  • 1989 – New Revised Standard Version

  • 1991 – Contemporary English Version

  • 1995 – God’s Word

  • 1996 – New Living Translation

  • 1996 – New International Reader’s Version

  • 2001 – English Standard Version

  • 2002 – The Message

  • 2004 – Holman Christian Standard Bible

  • 2005 – Today’s New International Version

  • 2005 – New English Translation

  • 2008 – New Community Bible

  • 2008 – The Orthodox Study Bible

  • 2009 – The Inclusive Bible

  • 2011 – Divine Name King James Bible

  • 2011 – Common English Bible

  • 2011 – International Standard Version

  • 2011 – New American Bible Revised Edition

  • 2011 – Names of God Bible

  • 2012 – The Voice Bible

  • 2014 – Modern English Bible

  • 2014 – Tree of Life Bible

  • 2017 – Christian Standard Bible

  • 2018 – Easy English Bible

  • 2018 – The Hebrew Bible: A Translation with Commentary

  • 2018-2019 – Revised New Jerusalem Bible

  • 2019 – Evangelical Heritage Version

  • 2020 – 365 Day Bible

  • 2020 – Literal Standard Version

Ruth in the Bible: A synopsis of the book

Around the tenth century BC, an unknown author wrote the Book of Ruth. The book is said to be during the period of the judges, in which an Israelite family was detailed. Much of the book centers on Ruth, Boaz, and Naomi. The book has two general parts to it. In the first part, which is only the first chapter, ten years of hardship in Moab was detailed for this family, in which Naomi endured adversity, Naomi making a decision to leave Moab, Ruth’s continual love, and Naomi and Ruth going to Bethlehem. The remainder of the book, which is the second part, details their new lives in Israel, which includes Ruth meeting Boaz in the harvest field, then at the threshing floor, Boaz marrying Ruth, Naomi’s fulfillment, and a detailed genealogy of Perez to David.

In the ten years of hardship in Moab, we see that a severe famine had stricken Israel. Elimelech had taken his wife Naomi and their two sons across the Jordan River and South to the land of Moab. They needed rest somewhere, however, Elimelech died, and within ten years, his two sons that married Moabite wives died also. Therefore, Naomi didn’t see a future for herself in Moab, and so knowing the famine in Israel had passed, she decided to return home. Ruth had come along and wanted to attend the journey with Naomi, trusting in the God that Naomi believed. Naomi though welcomed home with goodness, experienced grief over the hardship of the previous ten years.

Next, we see detailed was Ruth working in the field of Boaz. When a farmer reaped his harvest, according to Israelite law, he was not to send workers through the field a second time to pick up any odd stalks of grain that the reapers dropped. These were left for the poor, who’d followed the reapers and grabbed what they can get. Ruth was one of these who gleaned (went after the dropped grains), so Naomi and she could have food. What she didn’t know, however, was the field she was gathering on belonged to a relative of Naomi’s deceased husband. This man was Boaz, as we see in chapter 2.

Boaz heard of the kindness that Ruth expressed to Naomi, so he looked for ways to reward her. He wanted to be sure that the reapers would deliberately leave extra grains behind for her to pick up. Therefore, she continued to glean in the fields. After this, Ruth took home more grain than she had hoped for, and when Naomi heard the story, she knew that God had His hand on the situation. Naomi told Ruth that the man who was so kind to her was a relative of her deceased husband. Ruth would then continue to glean for the rest of the season of harvesting.

So much grain was put aside, enough to last until next summer, it seemed. However, Naomi was concerned about Ruth and her future. Naomi suggested to Ruth that she should marry. Now, we see Naomi had no sons living, and there were no brothers of Ruth’s deceased husband whom she could marry either. Naomi suggests Boaz for her to marry, because he was the closest living relative.

Therefore, Ruth wanted to speak to Boaz and went down to the threshing floor where he slept. She spoke with him, and symbolically asked him to be her husband or that he would take her as his wife in the symbol of having the skirt spread over her. Boaz, surprisingly, was delighted and honored by this, and therefore, Boaz wanted to marry, as well. Soon, we see Boaz giving her some more grain and sending her home. Naomi was excited as she saw her suggestion working out.

As we see next, it appears Naomi decided to sell her deceased husband’s land. To prevent the land from passing out of the family, she had to ensure that the nearest relative would buy it. In which case, that person would be the same one who would produce an heir through Ruth. Naomi wanted the child born an heir of the family property, so she wanted Boaz to buy it.

Nevertheless, he was quite unsure if he could handle the costs of buying the land and marrying Ruth. In surpassing nervousness, it seems Boaz went ahead with the buy, but also married Ruth with a wish that God would make them fruitful and prosperous just as Israel’s ancestors. Therefore, the child born to Boaz and Ruth was important, especially to Naomi. The child didn’t just carry on the family name (of Naomi’s husband and son), but Obed also became the grandfather of King David and an ancestor of Jesus Christ (as we see in Matthew 1:5).

Joshua led the Israelites through the 7 years in the conquest

“And it shall come to pass, that when they make a long blast with the ram’s horn, and when ye hear the sound of the trumpet, all the people shall shout with a great shout; and the wall of the city shall fall down flat, and the people shall ascend up every man straight before him.” -Joshua 6:5

Joshua was 80 years old when he  took office, and he died at the age of 110. The command given to Joshua in 1:2 was, “Since Moses is now dead – arise, go over the Jordan with all the people; unto the land given unto you.” Joshua built Two Memorials unto God to show his appreciation at the crossing of the Jordan: one was Gilgal and the other stood in the Jordan River where the priests had stood.

Two spies were sent to look over Jericho, who were originally from Shittim, as we see in Joshua 2:1. Joshua was the one who sent the spies, and therefore, he had them hide in the house of the prostitute, who was called Rahab (Joshua 2:1). She was spared, because she did not know them or why they were at her house. When the feet of the priests touched the brim of the water, the River Jordan rose up in a heap (even at the flooding time of the year), as we see in the text and in Scripture 3:3,13,16. Joshua built Two Memorials unto God to show his appreciation at the crossing of the Jordan: one was Gilgal and the other stood in the Jordan River where the priests had stood.

According to the text, The Israelites sampled a victory by God’s supernatural power in the battle for Ai, however, they were not allowed to retain any spoils. This meant that no one was allowed to keep anything from Jericho, but rather to destroy it except the Vessel for the Treasury of the Lord’s House. Well, going into Ai in their first battle, 36 men had died because of sin in the camp: Achan, a soldier in the army had kept some of the spoils from Jericho (and he was the one who caused Israel to lose their first battle). (Thankfully, for them though, after destroying Achan and his household, The Israelites conquered Ai.)

Synopsis

Joshua wrote his own Book of Joshua, which was around 14th century BC. This book is normally served as a continuation of the Pentateuch (first five Books of the Bible written by Moses). The largest concern of this book has to do with Israel’s conquest of Canaan, as well as the division of land among the tribes. He writes about God’s faithfulness in fulfilling His covenant promises in Israel concerning Canaan.

The book starts out with the preparation for entering Canaan, to which Joshua is commissioned by God. This command is brief and upfront; which involved taking the land of Canaan. Though Israel would not win the land without a fight, the people had God’s assurance that they would gain possession where they trod. Joshua was given assurance that God was with him, but Joshua still needed courage and wisdom from God to endure. Anyway, they were given instructions to cross the Jordan River next.

The idea of crossing the Jordan River is to conquer the Western area. The first city to conquer was Jericho, for it blocks the passage through the mountain. Therefore, they work their way across the Jordan River, to come upon the camp at Gilgal, where some of the talk was about circumcision, and that through completion of it, people could celebrate the Passover. God had a special messenger come unto Joshua to remind him that God was the commander of Israel’s army; therefore, Joshua fell at his feet to worship him, because he believed it was God in human form.

Next, we see the conquering of the Promised Land, where the Israelites are in their conquest of Canaan. A division was created between the northern and southern regions so the Canaanite tribes would be prevented from joining forces. The idea is to destroy and conquer Canaan – first to conquer the South (as we see in chapter 10) and then the North (as we see in chapter 11). This was part of God’s plan, which had given the Canaanites time to repent. Their wickedness was so great that the time of judgment has now come.

God used His People, Israel, to complete the destruction of the Canaanites. So, we see the defeat of Jericho detailed in chapter 6. Over the next six days, the Israelites marched around Jericho once a day, and then returned unto the camp at Gilgal. On the seventh day, the Israelites were to march around the city seven times. When the walls of the city fell, they were to destroy all people except for Rahab and her household, and all of the good except for the precious metals. The Israelites were not to keep anything for themselves in this process.

God had planned that the victory in Jericho would bring glory unto Him, which was in response by faith from His People. God wanted Jericho to be left in ruins; a permanent monument of its destruction by His curse. If anyone were to rebuild the city, the curse would pass onto him, and he would suffer the loss of his own sons. After this, we see the defeat and victory at Ai, and then the worship and covenant renewal at Shechem. Then, Scripture details the conquest to Southern Canaan, where they made the treaty with the Gibeonites, and then the destruction of the Amorite Coalition.

Soon, we read about the victory in Southern Canaan, where it was Joshua’s biggest battle so far. God pressed assurance of victory on Joshua nonetheless, and so when the victory occurred, Joshua led his forces further into the southern regions of Canaan conquering the key cities. Therefore, the conquered cities would include Libnah, Lachish, Gezer, and Eglon, as well as other cities, such as Hebron and Debir. It reached as far South as Kadesh-barnea and as far West as Gaza. Israel had now conquered and controlled almost the entirety of Southern Canaan, as we see at the end of chapter 10.

The Southern conquer was difficult, but not as difficult as the Northern side of things appeared, for a large army had been prepared and equipped, which intimidated Joshua and his army. However, God continued to encourage Joshua in his lack of faith, and made sure that he had strength. All of northern Canaan then, was soon in the hands of Israel. So, then Joshua summarizes all of the conquest, because now Israel has controlled all of the territory that was to become its homeland. From receiving their inheritance, to gaining control of territory, and then listing the kings of the Canaanite city-states in whom the Israelites had defeated.

Now that the territory has been controlled by Israel, the leaders began the task of dividing the land among the tribes. Throughout the country, many areas were still occupied by the Canaanites, because either they had escaped the Israelites or it was just too difficult to conquer the area. With the people weary of battle, the Canaanites became big trouble for Israel. Anyway, the land conquered was divided among the tribes, and the plans were mapped out for the divisions in chapters 13-14. The largest portions of Canaan went to the chief tribes, which were Judah and Joseph. Judah received almost the entirety of Southern Canaan, and Joseph almost the entirety of Central Canaan. So, overall, Joshua detailed much of the division of the inheritance, whether sorting the tribes to the West or East of the Jordan River. After this, he details special allotments, which included six cities of refuge and the cities of the Levites.

Soon, we learn of the return of the Eastern Tribes, as we see in chapter 22. Now that the territory West of Jordan was conquered and divided among the nine and a half tribes, the other two and a half tribes were free to return to their inheritance that was east of the Jordan River. They were commended for being faithful to helping their brothers conquer Canaan and then warned them to remain true to God in their new home. Peace was also restored for the Western tribes, and the Eastern tribes gave the altar a special name. They were all bound to God, who was their covenant Lord. This was wonderful for them that they were able to finally get to Canaan and conquer, which moved God’s Will further.

Then, we see Joshua’s farewell messages, especially addressing Israel’s rulers and all of Israel. He noted some info on the covenant renewal at Shechem, before we finally see the conclusion. The conclusion involved the death and burial of Joshua, the burial of the bones of Joseph, and the death and burial of Eleazar. Three good men in the conquest to Canaan had passed away, but Israel had a hopeful future: Joshua helped them to a great inheritance and made a legacy that any man would want to leave – and that’s accomplishing God’s Will!

A protestant type prophet called Zephaniah

Zephaniah lives in a time of decay and rapidly changing world, to which, the savage horde of Scythians poured onto the plains of South Russia and instilled fear into the hearts of the Palestinian people. They were cruel, bloodthirsty, fearless, and ruthless people who drove on toward Egypt. Such merciless behavior only created more panic in the hearts of men, and the great Assyrian power that had absolute rule was not losing its grip. Nineveh was yet destroyed, and Babylon was really the mistress of the nations. The union of the Medes, Scythians, and the Babylonians caused a mighty upheaval in the land.

Then, we see Josiah come to the throne in Jerusalem following the deaths of Manasseh and Amon. They had converted the nation to heathenism, and now the task of Josiah was to clean the Temple and turn the people back to God. A book was found, which was part of the Pentateuch, and it gave directions that made a big impression on the King and people. Zephaniah and Jeremiah had played a big part in the reformation; encouraging Josiah in his ambition and that helped stir the people up to carry out the King’s orders.

He presents the “terror and tenderness” of divine love, as we see in 1:2, “I will utterly consume all things from off the land, saith the LORD.” Also, 3:17, “The LORD thy God in the midst of thee is mighty; he will save, he will rejoice over thee with joy; he will rest in his love, he will joy over thee with singing.” Zephaniah pictures Christ as, “The Lord in the Midst,” as we see in 1:8 for example, “And it shall come to pass in the day of the LORD’S sacrifice, that I will punish the princes, and the king’s children, and all such as are clothed with strange apparel.” He also pictures Christ as, “The King of Israel,” as we see in Zephaniah 3:15, “The LORD hath taken away thy judgments, he hath cast out thine enemy: the king of Israel, even the LORD, is in the midst of thee: thou shalt not see evil any more.”

Zephaniah, unlike other prophets, was not a spokesperson for the poor, but rather, he was an aristocrat who didn’t have a voice for the everyday peasant. His name means, “The hidden Jehovah.” He was a silver-tongued orator and graphically foretold the doom of Nineveh. This came shortly after the beginning of his ministry. With a scathing eloquence, he denounced much idolatry, which was swept away at the reform of Josiah. Many Biblical scholars believe that it was Zephaniah who was the principal agent of God behind the scenes of the reform, bringing back Godly concepts to the nation. He had a grim, albeit sober nature that gained him the term, “puritan” or “protestant.” He was obsessed with the conception of the doom that was coming upon the wickedness. He blistered with his words princes, prophets, and other people for their unrestrained wickedness and lack of true, sincere worship of God. He was not a poet, but was sensitive to the faintest whisper of God – therewith imagination and emotion played a great part in his preaching.

He said that He would utterly consume all things from off the land, which includes man and beast, fowls of the heaven, fish, and the obstacles with the wicked. He also said He would cut off man from the land and stretch his hand toward Judah and upon all the inhabitants of Jerusalem. He said He will additionally cut off the remnant of Baal from this place and the name of the Chemarims with the priests, those that worship the host of heaven upon the housetops, those that worship and that swear by the Lord, and that swear by Malcham. Those that are turned back from the Lord and those who have not sought the Lord or enquired for Him shall also be cut off.

God’s people may have been previously sorrowful for the punishments upon them, now they will have joy, as they dwell together with God, their King – especially without fear or judgment. However, they are not to be lazy or discourage, but rather, alert and full of confidence. Defeat shall be replaced by victory, and God will take away their shame – to which, in His Love, He shall give them new life. Exiles will be gathered from the lands of their oppression and be established again in their own land. Therefore, under God’s rule, they will share with him in receiving praise from the whole earth!

Nahum calls Christ “The Stronghold”

Nineveh, which was founded by Nimrod, was famous for centuries. They’d responded to the Prophet Jonah’s message about 200 years before. Sin abounded again, however, and therefore, the commandments of God were forgotten. Nineveh had walls up to 100 feet high, 7 ½ miles around, and wide enough for three chariots to drive abreast on the wall. The city presented a formidable front to any invader. It had boasted 1200 defense towers and a moat outside the walls up to 140 feet wide and 60 feet deep.

Anyway, in Jerusalem, Manasseh reigned; then his son Amon ruled, and finally, youthful Josiah began his eventful reign. The reformation under Josiah’s leadership caused a great change in the life of the nation. When the Book of the Law was found and read to the people, they had set out to clean up the land, and then set up the worship that was described in the book.

It was written to the Ninevites (who Jonah had a mission to 200 years prior to this). It seems they were back to their old sins again, so God sent another to take care of them. Christ is seen in this book as “The Stronghold.” Man is pictured as an “Apostate.” Nahum 2:2, “For the LORD hath turned away the excellency of Jacob, as the excellency of Israel: for the emptiers have emptied them out, and marred their vine branches.” Verse five, “He shall recount his worthies: they shall stumble in their walk; they shall make haste to the wall thereof, and the defence shall be prepared.”

The destruction of Nineveh was the theme of the book along with vengeance is God’s! Nineveh had repented in Jonah’s day, but apostasizing had set in against the compassionate God. The period of this Book is about 610-620 BC, which was about 200 years after Jonah’s prophecy warning Nineveh, and a little less than a hundred years when the Temple was restored by King Hezekiah. The other prophets near this era was very limited – it was only Nahum and Zephaniah until about 590 BC when Jeremiah came… Soon, there would be numerous prophets due to the state of the fallen world, especially with the trouble caused by King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon – it was literally an “end of the world scenario” at that time.

On every page, we see a vivid picture of Nineveh’s doom, as the judgment of the Lord loomed near, and it is sure and final for vengeance is the Lord’s. Its style was great beauty, especially in poetic imagery, dramatic descriptions, and vivid imagination. Nahum describes the swift and relentless sweep of the enemy with great vividness and color. The teaching value of the book includes that it teaches most convincingly that we reap what we sow, whether as a man or as a nation. It is similar in style to Paul’s warning to the Galatians (6:7-8), for Paul said, “Be not deceived” – which compares to Nahum 1:2-3. There is a limit to God’s patience with sin and unrepentance. God is in control throughout the world. The arrogance that indulges in senseless destruction of life and property angers God. We see seven attributes of God, which include, longsuffering, justice, omnipotence, holiness, goodness, omniscience, and His vengeance.

The portions of utter significance

  • 1:2, “God is jealous, and the LORD revengeth; the LORD revengeth, and is furious; the LORD will take vengeance on his adversaries, and he reserveth wrath for his enemies.” This displays attributes of God; what He’s feeling as this book opens, so that people are well aware of what is going on from the start. This is a sharp exposition to begin with, and shows that God is not happy.
  • 1:3, “The LORD is slow to anger, and great in power, and will not at all acquit the wicked: the LORD hath his way in the whirlwind and in the storm, and the clouds are the dust of his feet.” Having this verse follow the previous verse shows simply that God doesn’t usually get angry, and it seems His anger is fueled at the troublesome ways of the wicked.
  • 1:6, “Who can stand before his indignation? and who can abide in the fierceness of his anger? his fury is poured out like fire, and the rocks are thrown down by him.” This again describes vividly the imagery of His anger. The countering verse follows:
  • 1:7, “The LORD is good, a strong hold in the day of trouble; and he knoweth them that trust in him.” This speaks that the Lord is good overall, and a stronghold in the day of trouble. It speaks for itself and is a good verse. It also said that the Lord knows who trusts in Him, and therefore, it can be said that the Lord does love His People, but just not some of the things they do.
  • 1:15, “Behold upon the mountains the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace! O Judah, keep thy solemn feasts, perform thy vows: for the wicked shall no more pass through thee; he is utterly cut off.” God shall be victorious, and soon a messenger will bring them good news of the overthrow of Assyria – therefore, they can worship God in thanksgiving, sincerity, and joy!
  • 2:3, “The shield of his mighty men is made red, the valiant men are in scarlet: the chariots shall be with flaming torches in the day of his preparation, and the fir trees shall be terribly shaken.” This is very vivid imagery of the uniformed soldiers with their chariots as the enemies approach the city walls – things begin heating up, and this shows something big is coming.
  • 2:10: “She is empty, and void, and waste: and the heart melteth, and the knees smite together, and much pain is in all loins, and the faces of them all gather blackness.” This shows simply the aftermath of this destruction, as the Assyrians were quite cruel and ruthless in their treatment of the nations that they attacked. People just look with horror at the destroyed city.
  • 3:18-19, “Thy shepherds slumber, O king of Assyria: thy nobles shall dwell in the dust: thy people is scattered upon the mountains, and no man gathereth them. There is no healing of thy bruise; thy wound is grievous: all that hear the bruit of thee shall clap the hands over thee: for upon whom hath not thy wickedness passed continually?” We see that Assyria’s leaders will be killed, which leaves those people without a leader and an easy prey for attackers. Therefore, Assyria will fall for the last time, and those who suffered from their cruelty will rejoice headstrong!

People have been plenty warned of God’s Vengeance. This is not the only time when He had to escalate measures to bring His People back into alignment. Here are the other instances (not exhaustive list):

  • Nahum 1:2, “God is jealous, and the LORD revengeth; the LORD revengeth, and is furious; the LORD will take vengeance on his adversaries, and he reserveth wrath for his enemies.”
  • Psalm 94:1, “O LORD God, to whom vengeance belongeth; O God, to whom vengeance belongeth, shew thyself.”
  • Exodus 20:5, “Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me.”
  • Deuteronomy 4:24, “For the LORD thy God is a consuming fire, even a jealous God.”
  • Deuteronomy 7:10, “And repayeth them that hate him to their face, to destroy them: he will not be slack to him that hateth him, he will repay him to his face.”
  • Zechariah 1:14, “So the angel that communed with me said unto me, Cry thou, saying, Thus saith the LORD of hosts; I am jealous for Jerusalem and for Zion with a great jealousy.”
  • Romans 12:19, “Dearly beloved, avenge not yourselves, but rather give place unto wrath: for it is written, Vengeance is mine; I will repay, saith the Lord.”
  • Hebrews 10:30, “For we know him that hath said, Vengeance belongeth unto me, I will recompense, saith the Lord. And again, The Lord shall judge his people.”
  • Deuteronomy 32:35, “To me belongeth vengeance, and recompence; their foot shall slide in due time: for the day of their calamity is at hand, and the things that shall come upon them make haste.”

This may seem like a grim book, but that’s the way it was at this state. It’s important to evaluate the cause and effect of pre-salvation. This book sure revealed the state of the world before it was about to go through an extraordinary judgment.

Beginning the Major and Minor Prophet work studies | Introductory post

Non-Writing Prophets are prophets that are mentioned but have not written a book in the Bible – versus a Writing Prophet who has written a book in the Bible. There are major and minor ones of each, however, the more prominent Major and Minor Prophets are the ones who are Writing Prophets. A Major Prophet is described as one who contains a large amount of material. A Minor Prophet, though they are not less than the Major Prophets, they usually contain less or are shorter in length for information. All prophets, Writing and Non-Writing; Major and Minor, mattered in the development of God’s Will for His People and other lands.

Elijah was an especially prominent and important Non-Writing Prophet. He was brought into the text suddenly as Melchizedek was, and there is no mention of a father, mother, or any beginning of his days. Little is known of Elijah, and some think he was dropped out of the clouds as if a messiah would be. He grew quickly into a witness of God as a prophet, and would change a good part of history within a fraction of time, and then bestow a royal blessing before being whisked off into Heaven by a chariot of fire.

An outline of Elijah’s prophecy:

  • In 1 Kings 17:1-4, we see his first prophecy – to which, he foretells of a great drought to Ahab, so Ahab is sent to Cherith, where the ravens would feed him.
    • This would be fulfilled shortly after with a terrible famine, which revealed Elijah to be a true prophet of God
  • Another prophecy is recorded in 17:14, which relates to God’s provision during the famine for both Elijah and the poor widow who fed him. God would provide food, and then it was fulfilled (As Elijah blessed the woman’s oil and flour) by the continual provision of food out of the same container for many days.
  • Elijah helped deal with idolatrous activity, especially in 1 Kings 18-22. Elijah’s final act before his ascension to Heaven by chariot of fire was handing the mantle over to Elisha. He desired that Elisha prepare himself, being modest and humble and to hold peace. Honor would be placed on Elisha so suddenly, and Elijah sought to comfort him and bestow the magnificent blessing from God upon him.

Miriam, from the Old Testament, was a prophetess and sister of Aaron; an instructor of praise and service of God to other women. She had the Spirit of prophecy upon her, and showed it through song and dance.

  • In Exodus 15:20-21, we see her with a timbrel in hand leading other women in the same with dances, and she said to sing to the Lord, for He has triumphed gloriously – the horse and his rider are thrown into the sea.
    • She was speaking here things that she saw, and declared the glory of the Lord as a result of victory.

Elisabeth, from the New Testament, was barren, until God had chosen her to bear a child of prophecy (John the Baptist). Not much is known about her, except that she was friends with Mary, who would bear The Child of Prophecy (Jesus). One time is recorded when she met with Mary that the child (John) leapt in her womb – to which, Elisabeth was filled with the Holy Ghost. Outline of her prophecy in Luke 1:42-43: She spoke out with a loud voice to Mary saying that she was blessed among women and blessed is the fruit of her womb. In this altogether, she acknowledges the incarnation of Christ, and for Mary to be His mother.

satan is a false prophet who seeks to mislead people away from the truth. He began in Genesis in the Garden of Eden, as we see in Chapter 3. We also see much of “satan” in Job, as he is used as an accuser of Job. The object of satan is a tool of accusation to speak into people’s lives lies about them, to attempt to mislead and challenge them. That is the role of satan in everyday culture is false but prophetic devices used to lead people astray. If people are reluctant, however, to be led astray, they overcome the satan and such devices.

Moses is definitely one prophet to note. He was raised in the court of the Pharaoh of Egypt, and then led the Hebrews out of Egypt. God spoke to him in a burning bush instructing him to persuade the Pharaoh in releasing the Hebrew people. (More about Moses to come soon!)

Outline of a prophecy, found mainly in Deuteronomy 28:49-52:

  • This prophecy is given after conditions of the Covenant were listed (blessings and curses). The curses involved diseases and plagues upon the Israelites’ families, flocks, herds, and crops. If problems continued, the whole nation would go into humiliating captivity.
  • The foreign invaders would be so cruel as to make people desperate for food so much as to eat their own children. Eventually, as prophesied, the nation would be destroyed and the people would be taken captive into foreign countries.
  • When in foreign countries, they would be treated worse than animals, and would die horribly. Many would be shipped as slaves to Egypt.

John the Baptist was a good Non-Writing Prophet from the New Testament, who was a messenger and a prophet. Prophets foretold the Messiah, and John was a herald to announce Him. John was miraculously born and was the subject of prophecy – to which, he was humble and pointed people to Christ. Jesus spoke of him as well, “For I say unto you, Among those that are born of women there is not a greater prophet than John the Baptist: but he that is least in the kingdom of God is greater than he” (Luke 7:28).

Peter’s admonitions on identifying the attributes of Prophets are in 2 Peter 1:20-21 and 2 Peter 3:2: “Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost. That ye may be mindful of the words which were spoken before by the holy prophets, and of the commandment of us the apostles of the Lord and Saviour.”

Biblical Prophets should be uncompromising, which means they are not bound by the opinions of others. For they are conscious of a divine call and realize that they must speak only the Prophetic Word of God – to which, the divine compulsion must be obeyed. They stay on task no matter what and know that they have the privilege to speak, which is by access to the inner counsel of Yahweh. They have immediate contact with God, and He is the bearer of such precious secrets. They have an intense passion for truth, especially in proclaiming it. They know that God is the authority and they trust in Him to provide sound wisdom through them, in hopes that people would be admonished. They are individuals of prayer and communion, to which they must be clean and lead consecrated lives (especially good character). They are outspoken critics of evil and act as God’s agent to correct, reprove, exhort, and reveal the future to the people of God.

We see Peter talking about the presence of the Spirit in the Old Testament Prophets in 1 Peter 1:10-12, “Of which salvation the prophets have enquired and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that should come unto you: Searching what, or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify, when it testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow. Unto whom it was revealed, that not unto themselves, but unto us they did minister the things, which are now reported unto you by them that have preached the gospel unto you with the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven; which things the angels desire to look into.”

Peter speaks that they were filled with the Holy Ghost to speak such things, and then points that into our direction, as we now preach the gospel. We have the Spirit of Prophecy available to us, as he says, and this ensures that God can continue to communicate to His People overall.

They said it was the City of satan – Pergamon: A closer look

The “City of satan”? Or… “satan’s throne”?

Telephus Frieze

Right along the Turkish coast are these ruins of an ancient city that is mentioned by Jesus in the Book of Revelation – they are known as Pergamon (or Pergamum). Some of the ruins do remain in place; however, many of them were shipped over to Germany to Berlin’s Pergamon Museum. The greatness of this city rivaled the great Alexandria, Ephesus, and even Antioch. Pilgrims from all over the Mediterranean region would engage in this city – especially having trade routes (because they were so close to sea and had plenty of land routes).

One of the key people there, who was mentioned in Revelation 2 was Saint Antipas (or called Antipas of Pergamum). Revelation 2:13 says, “I know thy works, and where thou dwellest, even where Satan’s seat is: and thou holdest fast my name, and hast not denied my faith, even in those days wherein Antipas was my faithful martyr, who was slain among you, where Satan dwelleth.”

Did you catch that? ‘Where satan’s seat is…’ That’s right, which Jesus said, to see that one of the faithful there was true to Jesus even until the end. He was reportedly a disciple of the Apostle John, being ordained during the reign of Roman Emperor Domitian. Antipas eventually fell to martyrdom during the reign of Nero.

The city of Pergamon was a city of much idolatry, especially those worshiping demons. There was a structure there, which was the Great Altar of Pergamon – what some people have labeled/nicknamed as “satan’s throne.” Such structure has survived without being in too much of ruins. Many of the monuments and buildings from that time have survived in the Berlin museum mentioned earlier, which included its high quality white marble builds from the Hellenistic artistry, and the fame library and unbelievable publications from several physicians.

The believed or supposed destruction of Pergamon had come about as before 323 BC, they were known very little, but when Alexander the Great died in 323 BC, the prominence of this quaint place of Pergamon rose. Attalid kings who ruled the kingdom made the trading routes more secure and bountiful, which increased the wealth and power of this city, even after being annexed by Rome in 133 BC – therein becoming part of the Roman Empire.

As we have seen in the Book of Revelation, John relays a message from Christ to the Seven Churches, which are unsurprisingly all within Modern Day Turkey (did you know Turkey controlled all of those territories?). The Christians in Pergamon were praised for being faithful to Christ even while dwelling around satan’s throne.

Paul referenced many people in such regions, in 1 Corinthians 10:20, that the Greeks and Romans were pagans that were sacrificing to demons, not to gods. In the Book of Revelation and also in Mark 3:22-27, satan is known as the chief of the fallen angels, which corresponds to Zeus, the so called ruler of the gods. Nonetheless, such “throne of satan” is a false throne, one that was exalted, but we know that only God’s Throne shall reign eternally!

References:

  • Adela Yarbro Collins, The Combat Myth in the Book of Revelation (Harvard Dissertations in Religion 9; Missoula, MT: Scholars Press for the Harvard Theological Review, 1976; reprinted Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock, 2001), pp. 176–190.
  • Collins, Adela Yarbro. “Satan’s Throne,” Biblical Archaeology Review 32.3 (2006): 27–31, 33–34, 36–39.
  • Martin J. Mulder, “God of Fortresses,” in Karel van der Toorn et al., eds., Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible (Leiden: Brill, 1995), p. 700.

Actual Evidence Jonah Bible Study with Archaeology of Nineveh

Aquileia Basilica of Jonah Swallowed by the Serpent – CC-BY-SA of Yukio Sanjo

During the reign of Jeroboam II for the Israel side of the divided kingdoms, and during the reign of Amaziah on the Judah side – there was a prophet named Jonah. He was a disobedient man of God until the adversity he faced resulted in proper action and obedience.

While we won’t be posting the entire Scripture of Jonah due to its length, please read the Book of Jonah when you have a chance. We review Jonah below…

The Book of Jonah, written by Jonah around 760 BC, was about a prophet named Jonah who was to preach about God to the Ninevites during the reign of Jeroboam II. The book talks about the journey of Jonah being called, his disobedience, swallowing by the fish, doing God’s work, and the lesson he learned about God’s mercy.

God had called Jonah to warn the sinful people of Nineveh of a coming judgment (because they were unrepentant). However, Jonah decided to be disobedient and flee away from the place, and went into the opposite direction. God, then, because of the disobedience, wanted Jonah to come back, so He sent a storm that threatened to sink Jonah’s ship. Therefore, Jonah’s men decided to pray to their gods and wanted him to do the same. However, Jonah didn’t see much change in this, and therefore, Jonah didn’t pray. Soon, Jonah had realized this could be God’s judgment for his disobedience, and therefore, he confessed his sin before God. Jonah was so repentant in this situation, that his men started acknowledging God. However, they decided nothing else would save them, so they threw Jonah overboard. God had a great plan then and sent a great fish to swallow Jonah to save Jonah from drowning.

Now in the belly of the fish, Jonah awoke and began a psalm of thanksgiving for the salvation of his life by God. After that, he felt his life was in danger, because he sunk so deeply into the fish, however, then God had saved him from the fish entirely. Therefore, after this, God commanded him again to go and preach unto the Ninevites, for the Ninevites had to repent. Jonah obeyed God this time around. The message from God was that the Ninevites would be overthrown within forty days. Jonah then preached this unto them, and they came to repentance to God because of the warning. Because of their repentance, God did not destroy them after all.

God was teaching Jonah a lesson through all this, not only about his disobedience, but also about God’s mercy – for God was indeed a loving God, but also just. Humans through history have completely misunderstood God, and until the coming of Jesus Christ, haven’t understood God’s loving and merciful nature. People still misunderstand God, but thankfully, God is still revealing Himself through His Word, everyday situations, and the Holy Spirit. Anyway, Jonah was afraid to preach in Nineveh, because of the potential destruction coming unto them, but God wanted Jonah to know that there was nothing to be afraid of or angry at – for if he were to preach in Nineveh, they might listen and heed the warning. This caused Jonah to realize that God wanted Jonah to be the carrier of His Message so that Nineveh could be saved – for God’s Message was one of salvation, not of doom. God always expresses messages of salvation and love, not of doom and misfortune. He only wants the best for people, and therefore, He thought the same of the Ninevites, just as the other nations: they can be saved if they will repent.

Jonah was thankful overall for God’s salvation and had realized God’s mercy, and repentant for his disobedience. People in their ignorance can face destruction for their unrepentant and disobedient hearts. Jonah did not want to be one of these people, so God gave Jonah a mission, he declined and faced near destruction – to which, he repented and received God’s mercy. This became his testimony, therefore, he could now go and minister unto people that they need to repent, because God is merciful and saved him – and therefore, he would save the Ninevites after all, if they repented.

Archaeological and Historical Evidence

The connection between archaeology and this book have been quite difficult, and some of the different themed literature, such as the Akkadian Hymn to Shamash, describes the troublesome predicaments of different sailors. One of the most dangerous jobs in the world is to be a fisher, because of the risks of harsh seas, capsizing, boat accidents/damage, and other various issues. Research in texts such as Ugarit describe Yam, the Ugaritic god of the sea, as a dragon with a fish tail.

We also see in the Mesopotamian Descent of Inanna speaks of Inanna’s bemoaning, that if she were to stay in the belly of the fish for three more days, then lamenting shall begin. Other than that, fifth century BC texts from Greek historian, Herodotus, describe the Persian custom of slicing off horses’ manes as a mourning procedure, similar to how fasting was done in the lamentation process of funerals in this time in Greek history.

Due to the difficulty of the historicity of this era, we have emerging evidence, however. We layer the detail line-by-line below to describe each archaeological find. Any questions, please post in the comments…

Tarshish: The location of this city or region has yet to be identified as certain. Although, we do see it in Genesis 10:4, so its use in Jonah is not mistaken, because it was near Kittim, which we can traditionally identify with Cyprus. Antiquity remarks that it was quite distant from Israel—which is already remarked in First Kings 10:22. Of course, Jehoshaphat built ships at Ezion-geber in the Red Sea to travel to Tarshish. Yet another clue to the puzzle. Here’s where it is interesting and conclusive: It is likely Tarshish was a port just as Joppa was. This evidence is next in the discovery, we only need a few more clues.

The great fish: As said earlier, it was possible this was of a Ulgaritic god, the sea god Yam, which is depicted in various boundary stones uncovered regarding giant fish. Since it appears a giant fish swallowed up Jonah, we see the Christian historical text; however, Baal believers thought confidently and asserted it was actually the sea god Yam that swallowed up Jonah. See Job 38:17 and Isaiah 38:10 for more info on this idolatry.

Nineveh: This was situated, according to the mapping atlas available, between the Tigris and Khoser Rivers (as we see this is located near modern-day Mosul, Iraq). As we see in Genesis 10:11, Nimrod created Nineveh and ruled it. The rule of Nineveh later was attributed to the Assyrians, as it shows in the Assyrian Empiric history of 1420-609 BC. The great revival of Assyrian power occurred in and around 1000 BC. Nineveh had become a royal city, which was before Jonah’s time (c. 760 BC). The library of King Assurbanipal is found around the area where Nineveh was (Ezra 4:10 remarks similar finds) – and this discovery was around the reflection of how Nineveh operated just after Jonah’s time (this find dated around 669-627 BC). What we do know as well, is that the literature from Assyrian archives confirm these finds as well as the city being quite large, so the number of about 120,000 people seems correct. Modern surveys also confirmed this in comparison, because of the size of this city. (See Bob Harper’s “Assyrian and Babylonian Literature” of 1901 from D. Appleton – and Marcus Parker’s “Ulgaritic Narrative Poetry. Writings from the Ancient World” and Dennis Pardee’s “Ritual and Cult at Ugarit. Writings from the Ancient World” from Atlanta Society of Biblical Literature).

Donald J Wiseman contended once that there is sufficient evidence historically describing a large repentance of Ninevites in response to Jonah’s prophetic utterings (see Jonah 3:4). A list of events leading to Nineveh’s Repentance was marked for around 758 BC, and are dated as follows:

  • 787 BC: Monotheistic worship of the god Nabu began
  • 765 BC: Assyrian plague began
  • 763 BC: Asshur city revolt began and a solar eclipse erupted
  • 762 BC: Asshur revolt again
  • 761 BC: Arrapha city revolt
  • 760 BC: Arrapha revolt again; Jonah begins prophetic work
  • 759 BC: Another plague erupts
  • 758 BC: A repentance begins in the land (in response to Jonah’s obedience in prophetic utterance)
Art from antiquity: Inside the Huqoq Synagogue, there are mosaics depicting Jonah’s journey, being swallowed by the great fish, and the wars and scenery from the Ninevite time. The Huqoq Synagogue sits near Capernaum to the west, and Northwest of the Sea of Galilee. Architectural fragments are found just outside of Huqoq city, and Joshua 19:34 mentions Huqoq as a village apportioned to the Tribe of Naphtali – meaning this is a Jewish village. (Reference: Journal of Roman Archaeology 27 (2014), pp. 327-355). There are different workings of art related to this story of Jonah, including the similar depiction of Jonah being swallowed by a serpent in Aquileia’s church in Italy.

This evidence is not exhaustive and does not represent all of the possibilities in verifying Jonah’s prophetic work, but what we do have is evidence that the Ninevites repented due to a prophecy by an obedient man of God. This is important, because it was able to release the Ninevites from corruption at that time.